Article provided by NHS Choices
Illnesses such as cancer can affect anyone, whether you're gay or straight.
But some gay men and lesbians may be less likely to have screening and testing than heterosexuals. This could be because of fear of discrimination, or because they simply don't think they're at risk.
Screening and testing saves lives and is vital to detect certain conditions early, some of which may be more common in gay people - for example, breast cancer.
For more information, see our articles on screening and testing.
Health checks for lesbian women
Cervical cancer screening for lesbians
Around 2,800 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. It can be prevented if it's detected early enough through regular cervical smear tests.
It's an urban myth that lesbians can't get cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is generally associated with heterosexual sex, but although thought to be at lower risk than straight women, lesbians can still develop it.
According to a survey of more than 6,000 women by the charity Stonewall, 15% of lesbians and bisexual women have never had a cervical smear test, compared with 7% of women in general.
As part of the NHS Cervical Screening Programme, all women aged between 25 and 49 are invited for screening every three years, and women aged 50 to 64 are invited every five years.
This programme is co-ordinated by your GP and you should receive a reminder letter when your test is due. The programme gets your details from your GP, so it's important to register with a local surgery.
For more information, read our articles on preventing cervical cancer.
Breast cancer screening for lesbian women
According to the Stonewall survey, lesbians are more prone to breast cancer than straight women, possibly because they are less likely to have children, more likely to be overweight, and more likely to drink alcohol than heterosexual women.
The survey found more than 1 in 12 lesbian and bisexual women aged between 50 and 79 had been diagnosed with breast cancer, compared with 1 in 20 women in general.
Yet lesbians and bisexual women are less likely to attend routine breast screening tests.
The NHS Breast Screening Programme checks 1.6 million women every year. Women aged 50 to 70 are automatically invited for screening every three years.
While women over 70 aren't automatically invited, they're encouraged to make their own screening appointment every three years. The age range for screening will be extended to the ages of 47 to 73 by 2012.
For more information about breast screening, as well as how to spot any changes in your breasts, see our section on breast cancer.
Health checks for gay men
Sexual health checks
Gay men are at higher risk of certain sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhoea, than straight men.
You can get a free, confidential and anonymous sexual health check from your nearest genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic.
Although HIV can affect anybody, gay men are the most commonly affected group in the UK, and the number of people with HIV continues to rise.
According to Public Health England, more than a quarter (27%) of people with HIV don't know they have it.
HIV is most commonly spread through penetrative sex, and the best way to prevent it is to use a condom.
If you have had unprotected sex or think you might be at risk of HIV, it's important to be tested. You can get an HIV test from your GP or a GUM clinic.
Health checks for men and women
General health checks for men
Gay men and women are eligible for NHS bowel cancer screening from the age of 60, and for a blood pressure check every five years or so from the age of 40 (more often if your blood pressure is raised).
Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the UK. It affects men and women, gay or straight.
Most people who get chlamydia don't have noticeable symptoms, but if it's not treated, it can lead to serious health problems.
The National Chlamydia Screening Programme offers free testing to anyone under the age of 25. Read more about chlamydia screening for both the under- and over-25s.
Article provided by NHS Choices
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